The stereotypical home for a Neanderthal is believed to be a cave. Neanderthals were early humans who lived around 400,000 to 40,000 years ago. Evidence suggests that they inhabited a variety of shelters, including caves, rock shelters, and open-air sites. The idea of Neanderthals living in caves comes from the fact that many of their remains and artifacts have been found in caves. These spaces provided protection from the elements and predators, as well as a place to store food and materials. While not all Neanderthals lived in caves, it has become a common association due to their frequent use of the natural structures.